Wednesday, October 22, 2014

notebook hw for natural resources



1) Explain  resources on the earth

Ans:    The natural resources of the earth are air, water, soil, minerals and living organisms.    The outer crust of the earth is the lithosphere. The water on the earth is the hydrosphere. The layer of the air around the earth is the atmosphere. Living organisms are found where the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere interact and is the biosphere.



2. write a note on Air (Atmosphere)

Ans:   Air is a mixture of gases like nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour and other gases.

Ø During respiration living organisms use oxygen to break down glucose and get energy for their activities. This results in the release of carbon dioxide. Burning of fuels also use oxygen and release carbon dioxide.

Ø During photosynthesis green plants convert carbon dioxide into glucose in the presence of sunlight. This results in the release of oxygen.

Ø These processes help to maintain the oxygen – carbon dioxide balance in nature.

3. Explain  the role of atmosphere in climate control

Ø The atmosphere covers the earth like a blanket. Air is a bad conductor of heat. It prevents sudden increase in temperature during the day and also slows down the escape of heat during the night. So the atmosphere keeps the average temperature of the earth fairly steady during the day and throughout the year.

4. Write a note on  the movement of air (Winds)

Ø When air gets heated, it rises up and produces low pressure and cool air moves in to take its place. The movement of air causes winds.

Ø During the day the land gets heated faster than the sea. So the hot air above the land rises up and cool air from the sea moves towards the land. During the night sea cools down slowly than the land. So the hot air above the sea rises up and cool air from the land moves towards the sea.

5. How does   Rain occur?

Ø When water bodies are heated during the day, a large amount of water evaporates and rises up. Some water vapour also get into the atmosphere due to biological activities like transpiration. As the water vapour rises, it cools and condenses to form tiny droplets of water. This appears as clouds. When the tiny droplets of water join together to form bigger drops of water, they fall down as rain, snow or hail.

6. write a note on  Water : A wonder liquid :-

Ø A very large area of the earth’s surface is covered with water. Water is also found inside the earth, in the atmosphere as water vapour. The water in seas and oceans is saline. Fresh water is found in rivers, lakes, ponds and as ice and snow at the poles and mountains in cold regions.

Ø Water is needed by living organisms because all life processes and cellular activities need water. So all organisms need water to survive.

Ø The amount of water and other factors like temperature and nature of soil decides the diversity of species and the number of individuals of each species in an area.

7.  how does  Water pollution get polluted?

Ø The increase in the content of harmful substances in water is called water pollution.

Ø Water pollution is caused by addition of harmful substances like fertilisers and pesticides from farms, sewage from towns, cities and factories, harmful chemicals from factories, disease causing microorganisms, changes in the amount of oxygen dissolved in water or changes in the temperature of water.

 

8. How is soil formed?

Ø Soil is formed by the breaking down of rocks on the surface of the earth by physical, chemical and biological processess.

Ø The sun heats the rocks during the day and the rocks expand and at night the rocks cool and contracts. This causes the rocks to crack and break into smaller pieces.

Ø Water enters the cracks in the rocks and when water freezes, it expands and causes the cracks in the rocks to widen and break into smaller pieces. The flowing water carries the rock pieces. These pieces  rub against each other and become smaller and smaller particles.

Ø Strong winds also breaks rocks into smaller particles and carries it from one place to the other.

Ø The roots of large trees grow into the cracks in rocks and breaks it into smaller pieces. Lichens which grow on rocks produce some substance which cause the rock surface to powder and become soil.

9. Explain composition of soil :-

Ø Soil is a mixture of rock particles, decayed organisms called humus, living organisms, minerals, air and water. The amount of minerals, humus, air and water are the factors which decides the biodiversity in that area.

10. How does Soil  get polluted ?

Ø The addition of harmful substances which affects the fertility of the soil and kills the diversity of organisms living in it is called soil pollution.

Ø Soil pollution is caused by the excessive use of fertilisers and pesticides. It kills the organisms like earthworms and bacteria which makes the soil rich in humus. The removal of useful components and addition of other harmful substances reduces the fertility of soil and causes soil pollution.



11. Explain  Soil erosion and its prevention?

Ø The carrying away of soil from one place to the other by flowing water and wind is called soil pollution. Large scale deforestation also causes soil erosion.



Ø Soil erosion can reduced or prevented by vegetative cover on the ground, afforestation, construction of bunds, terraces, dams etc.

12. What is  Biogeochemical cycles and name different biogeochemical cycles

Ø Biogeochemical cycles are the transfer of matter and energy between the biotic and abiotic components of the biosphere.

   The common biogeochemical cycles are :-

  i) Water cycle,

 ii) Nitrogen cycle,

iii) Carbon cycle

iv) Oxygen cycle.

13. Write a note on Water cycle

Ø When water bodies are heated during the day, a large amount of water evaporates and rises up. Some water vapour also get into the atmosphere due to biological activities like transpiration and respiration. As the water vapour rises, it cools and condenses to form tiny droplets of water. This appears as clouds. When the tiny droplets of water join together to form bigger drops of water, they fall down as rain, snow or hail. Some of this water enters the ground and forms ground water. When water flows from the land to the seas it carries many nutrients and minerals which are used by marine organisms.
Draw cycle from text book

14. Explain about Nitrogen cycle

Ø The nitrogen in the atmosphere is fixed into nitrogen compounds in the soil by nitrogen fixing bacteria in the root nodules of leguminous plants and also during lightning. These nitrogen compounds are taken by plants and used to make proteins. When animals eat plants they also get proteins. When plants and animals die, bacteria convert the proteins into nitrogen compounds like nitrites and nitrates. Other bacteria convert these nitrogen compounds back into nitrogen in the atmosphere.

Ø Nitrogen is an essential component of biological molecules like proteins, nucleic acids and some vitamins.


Draw cycle from text book


15.  Explain Carbon cycle

Ø Carbon in the form of carbon dioxide is used by plants to prepare glucose by the process of photosynthesis. The glucose is used to provide energy and to convert into other organic compounds When animals eat plants it enters the body of animals. During respiration energy and carbon dioxide are produced. The carbon dioxide goes back into the atmosphere. Another process which adds carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere is the combustion of fuels like coal and petroleum. The organic compound in plants and animals are also converted into carbonates, limestone, coal, petroleum, exoskeletons (shells) of some animals.

Ø Carbon is an essential component of biological molecules like carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, nucleic acids etc.

     draw cycle from text book

16. Explain  Oxygen cycle

    Oxygen in the atmosphere is used for respiration, combustion and formation of oxide of elements. Oxygen is sent back into the atmosphere during photosynthesis.

   Oxygen is an essential component of biological molecules like carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

Draw cycle from text book





17.  Explain  the greenhouse effect

Ø Gases like carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluro carbon(CFCs) traps the heat radiated by the earth and prevents the escape of heat from the earth. The increase in the presence of these gases in the atmosphere causes increase in the temperature of the atmosphere. This is called the greenhouse effect.

Ø Greenhouse effect can cause melting of polar ice, increase in sea levels, flooding of coastal areas and submerging of islands.

18. Explain Ozone layer

Ø Ozone molecule contains three atoms of oxygen (O3). It is present in the upper layers of the atmosphere. It is  poisonous gas. It protects the earth from the harmful ultra-violet radiations from the sun which is harmful for living organisms.

Ø The ozone layer is being damaged by carbon compounds like chloro fluoro carbons (CFCs). To prevent the damage to the ozone layer, the use of (CFCs) is being reduced.


Tuesday, October 21, 2014

notebook question and answers for why do we fall ill.

Answer the following questions
1. Define health
 Ans. Health is defined as State of being well enough to function well physically, mentally and socially.
2. Write difference between being healthy and diseases free.

Healthy
Disease free
1.
It is a state of physical, mental and social well being.
It is a state of absence from diseases.
2.
It refers to the individual, physical and social environment.
It refers only to the individual.
3.
The individual has good health.
The individual may have good health or poor health.

3. Give significance of good health
4. Write conditions necessary for good health
Ansi) Good  social environment + physical health
ii) Individual and public cleanliness.
iiI) Good economic conditions. 
iv) Social equality and harmony.
5. Explain symptoms and signs
➢ A symptom is a change in the normal structure or functioning of the body parts. this  indicate that there is some thing wrong in the body .
For e.g. fever, headache, body ache, stomachache, nausea or vomiting are all symptoms of presence of some disease
Signs are definite clues or indication of a specific disease. Medical test provide the correct diagnois of the diseases
6. Explain about 4 different types of diseases
➢ Diseases are of different types. They are :-
iAcute diseases :-  are diseases which last only for a short period of time and does not have long term effect on health.
   Eg:- cold,  cough, typhoid, cholera etc
ii) Chronic disease :- are diseases which lasts for a long time and has long term drastic effect on health.
   Eg :- asthma, diabetes, tuberculosis, glucoma, elephantiasis, allergy, cancer etc.  
iii) Infectious diseases (Communicable diseases) :- are 
diseases which spread from an infected person to a healthy person through air, water, food, vectors, physical contact or sexual contact. Eg :- common cold, chicken pox, mumps, measles, typhoid, cholera, tuberculosis, malaria, AIDS etc.
iv) Non-infectious diseases (Non-communicable diseases) :
are diseases which are not spread from an infected person to a healthy person. Eg :- beri beri, rickets, scurvy, night blindness, diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure etc.

7. Explain causes of a diseases
AnsDiseases are caused by :-
 i) Pathogens like virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoans or 
    worms.
ii) Poor health and under nourishment.
iii) Malfunctioning of body parts.
iv) Environmental pollution.
v) Genetic disorders
8. Make a list of infectious agents and diseases caused by them
Ans  - 1.Viruses-Common cold, Influenza, Measles, Mumps, Chicken pox, AIDS, Hepatits-B etc.
2.Bacteria-Cholera, Typhoid, Tuberculosis, Tetanus, Anthrax, Food poisoning etc.
3.Fungi-Skin infections.
4.Protozoans-Malaria, Kala-azar, Amoebic dysentry, Sleeping sickness.
5.Worms-Intestinal infections, Elephantiasis.
9. Make a list of infectious agents and diseases caused by them
1.Viruses-Common cold, Influenza, Measles, Mumps, Chicken pox, AIDS, Hepatits-B etc.
2.Bacteria-Cholera, Typhoid, Tuberculosis, Tetanus, Anthrax, Food poisoning etc.
3.Fungi-Skin infections.
4.Protozoans-Malaria, Kala-azar, Amoebic dysentry, Sleeping sickness.
5.Worms-Intestinal infections, Elephantiasis.
10. Explain Means of spread of infectious diseases
Ans    Infectious diseases spread from an infected person to a healthy person through air, water, food, vectors, physical contact and sexual contact.
 iThrough air :- Common cod, Tuberculosis, Pneumonia 
                            etc.
ii) Through water :- Cholera, Amoebic dysentry etc.
iii) Through vectors :-
   Mosquitoes :- Malaria, Dengue, Yellow fever etc.
   Flies             :- Typhoid, Tuberculosis, DiarrhoeaDysentry
                          etc.
iv) Through sexual contact :- Syphilis, AIDS.
  AIDS virus can also spread though blood transfusion and from  the mother to her child during pregnancy and through breast feeding.

11. Explain Organ-specific and tissue-specific 
   manifestations

Ans: Disease causing microbes enter the body by different means and goes to different organs and tissues.
i) Microbes which enters through the nose are likely to go to the lungs. ( Bacteria which cause tuberculosis of lungs). 
ii) Microbes which enter through the mouth are likely to stay in the gut ( Bacteria which causes Typhoid) or liver (Bacteria which causes Jaundice).
iii) Virus which causes AIDS enter the body through sexual organs during sexual contact and spreads through the lymph to all parts of the body and damages the immune system.N
iv) Virus which causes Japanese encephalitis (brain fever) enters the body through mosquito bite and goes and infects the brain.


12. Write Principles of treatment :-
Ans : The treatment of infectious diseases consists of two steps. They are to reduce the effects of the disease (symptoms) and to kill the microbes which caused the disease.
iTo reduce the effects of the disease :
  This can be done by taking medicines to bring down the  effects of the disease like fever, pain or loose motions etc. and by taking bed rest to conserve our energy.
ii) To kill the microbes :-
This can be done by taking suitable antibiotics and drugs which kills the microbes and the disease is cured.

13. Write principles of prevention.
  There are two ways of prevention of infectious diseases. They are general ways and specific ways.
iGeneral ways of prevention :-
   Public hygiene is most important for prevention of infectious diseases. Proper and sufficient food for every onewill make people healthy to resist infection.
  Air borne diseases can be prevented by living in conditions that are not crowded. Water borne diseases can be prevented by providing safe drinking water. Vector borne diseases can be prevented by providing clean environment.
ii) Specific ways of prevention :-
  The specific ways to prevent infectious disease is  immunisation by taking vaccines. Vaccines provide immunity from infectious diseases like tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough, measles, polio etc. 
  Our body has an immune system which fights microbial infection. When this system first sees an infectious microbe, it kills the microbe and remembers it. So if the microbe enters the body the next time, it responds more vigorously. Vaccines mimic the infectious microbe  and strengthens our immune system and protects the body from infectious diseases. 

14. What is immunization?
15. Write about  disesese caused by protozonas, fungi ,bacteria , viruses and worms and its symptoms and preventive measures.


Saturday, September 20, 2014

Model questions for SA-1 (MATHS)

Model questions for SA-1 (MATHS)
      1.     Factorize: 4x2 + 24xy +9y2
      2.     Factorize: 25a2-16y2
      3.     Factorize: 7m2-m
      4.     Convert into decimal form and state the type of the expansion
a.     39/5
b.     17/5 
     5.     If m + 1/m  = 2 , find m2 + 1/ m2
     6.     If  n - 1/n  = 3, find  n2 + 1/ n2
     7.     The perimeter of an equilateral triangle is 24, find the area of the triangle using Heron’s formula.
     8.     Plot the points on the graph: (2,-3), (-5,7), (-4,-4), (0,3), (-6,0)
     9.     Find the value:  25-1/2  x  5 x  253/2
    10.                         Find the value:  72   x   343-1/3 x  493/2  
1  11.                        Simplify: (5 - 7 ) ( 7 + 5)
                                       9 - 22
    12.                         Simplify:  ( 7 - 9 ) ( 9 + 7 )
                                        7 - 25
    13.                        Say the quadrant: (4,6), (-3,6) , (-2,-10)
    14.                        Write the complimentary angle of : a. 550  ,   b. 750 c. 330
    15.                         O is the mid point of AB, M is the mid point of AO, what will be the    relation between length of AM and AB, also prove it.
   16.                        State and prove any one criteria of congruence of two triangles.
   17.                           Expand: (a) (3x+4y)3  (b) (3m – n )3

   18.                         Factorize: m2 + 9n2 + 25p2 + 6mn + 30np +10pm Also find the value when                   m=1,n=3 and p=-1

Monday, September 15, 2014

tissue worksheet 2

Class: 9
Month: June
Worksheet Number: 09/Sci/06/02
Subject: Science-Biology
Chapter: 06 - Tissues


Name: ____________________________________________


Section A: Exposition


Each question carries 1 mark:


1.      Which type of tissue is most abundant in animals?

2.      Which type of epithelium is present in the organs where the exchange of substances takes place?

3.      Which connective tissue connects two bones?

4.      Which connective tissue is present in ear?

5.      Which tissue connects bone to another bone?

6.      Name the following:-

a.       Multinucleate muscle fibre

b.      Spindle shaped muscle fibre

c.       Muscle that gets fatigued very soon

7.      Name two parts of your body, made from cartilage.

8.      What is synapse?


Each question carries 2 marks:


9.  What substances are transported by blood?


Each question carries 3 marks:


10.  How many types of elements together make up the xylem tissue? Name them.

11.  How many types of elements are found in phloem? Write their functions.

12.  Give three functions of blood

13.  Where columnar epithelium found and what is its function?


Section B: Extended Exposition


Each question carries 1 mark:


14. Which type of connective tissue is present in hump of camel and blubber of whale?

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Class: 9
Month: June
Worksheet Number: 09/Sci/06/02
Subject: Science-Biology
Chapter: 06 - Tissues


15.  Which connective tissue matrix contains salts of calcium and phosphorus?

16.  Which tissue connects bone to another bone?

17.  What type of matrix does bone has?


Each question carries 2 marks:


18.  Blood is considered to be connective tissue. Give reason.

19.  What will happen if; cells of epithelial tissue are not compactly packed?

20.  What will happen if; Lymph is not returned to blood?


Section C: Interpretation & Reasoning


Each question carries 1 mark:


21.  Name the simple permanent tissue which forms the basic packing tissue

22.  Name the simple permanent tissue which provide flexibility in plants

23.  Give one example of protective tissue in plants.

24.  Name the complex tissue which helps in conduction of water and minerals.

25.  Name the complex tissue which helps in conduction of food. Identify the type of tissue in these:

a.       a) skin

b.      b) bone

c.       c) inner lining of mouth

26.            Name these:

a.           process of neuron, which carries impulse away from cyton

b.          processes of neuron, which receive the impulse and pass it to cell body

c.           the muscle of heart

d.          one structure in our body which bears ciliated epithelium.


Each question carries 2 marks:


27.  Draw any two types of white blood corpuscle

28.  Distinguish between striated or unstriated muscle.



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Class: 9
Month: June
Worksheet Number: 09/Sci/06/02
Subject: Science-Biology
Chapter: 06 - Tissues






30.  How is meristematic tissue classified on the basis of its location?

31.  Which structure protects the plants body against the invasion of parasites? Mention its other functions also.

32.  How is outermost layer of cell in plants, adapted to perform its function effectively?

33.  Branches of a tree are able to move and bend freely in high wind velocity. Why?


Section D: Problem Solving


Each question carries 2 marks:


34.      Draw the diagram of tissue specialized in reception and transmission of impulses.

35.      Label the following

a.       i)  Part which receives impulses

b.      ii) Part which carries impulses away from the cell body

c.       iii) Cyton


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Class: 9
Month: June
Worksheet Number: 09/Sci/06/02
Subject: Science-Biology
Chapter: 06 - Tissues


Each question carries 5 marks:































































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